Top Level Domains (TLD) stands at the highest level in the hierarchy of Domain Name System (DNS), installed in the root zone of the domain name i.e. in the URL www.google.com the top level domain is com.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an organization that handles the management of most top-level domains, operating Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and maintaining DNS root zone. More than that, ICANN also defines policies on how the “names and numbers” of the internet should run and thus play a major role in domain naming system.
The functions of IANA consist of:
- Management of the address and routing parameter area (ARPA) of top-level domain.
- Administering certain responsibilities linked with DNS root zone management such as generic and country Top-level Domains.
- Allotment of internet numbering resources.
- Other services
Currently the following groups of TLDs are classified by IANA:
- Infrastructure top-level domain (arpa): it is the top level domain in the DNS of the internet; it is used for technical infrastructure purposes.
- Generic top-level domains (gTLD): TLD with three or more characters.
- Restricted generic top-level domains (grTLD): They are managed by ICANN authorized registrars.
- Sponsored top-level domains (sTLD): They are sponsored by private agencies that establish enforce rules for TLDs.
- Country-code top level domains (ccTLD): They are two letter domains established for countries.
- Test top-level domains (tTLD): Test top-level domains are installed for testing purposes during the development process; they are not present in the root zone.
- Internationalized country code TLDs: These domain names are encode that display in the user’s application in its language native script.
Registration information and what to do:
To register a domain name under a generic top-level domain (gtld) one must do so by using ICANN-accredited registrar. There are many amount of registrars’ present worldwide to provide support in local languages. An agreement known as the Registration Accreditation Agreement (RAA) that sets the relationship among the registrant and ICANN-accredited registrar. To do this the interested entity has to apply for accreditation and analyze whether it meets all technical, operational and financial criteria to qualify as a registrar business.
Role of ICANN in the registration:
ICANN staff provides information and general support to the registrars and registrants with regard to ICANN-accredited registrars and the Registration Accreditation Agreement (RAA).
— Payoneer (@Payoneer) 6 de noviembre de 2018